Friday, May 22, 2020

Civil Procedure In Two Legal Systems - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1585 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Compare and contrast essay Did you like this example? As far as I know, human right starts from his birth, and it never loses until his or her death. However majority people understand law differently but minority think that law is not as important as much during our lifelong. If we look to its history, law is used from ancient times and it has developed year by year. There are as many legal systems as countries in the world. However, There are some differences and similarity between Criminal and Civil law. 1.1 About Law There are many ideas and theories about law. Law is set of rules which are established by government to maintain stability and justice in society (Brown and Sukys, 2006). Law has relationship with ethics. According to Brown and Sukys (2006), ethics is determining what societys values ought to be. If ethical rules always reached the same ethical result, and if everyone always acted by those results, there would be no need for law (Brown and Sukys, 2006). Law was established in ancient times and developed year by year. Law was developed in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, ancient Greece and Roman Empire, etc (, 2010). Many people contribute for development of law. Greek philosopher Aristotle says that Law is order, and good law is good order. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Civil Procedure In Two Legal Systems" essay for you Create order 2. Main part 2.1 General concept of currently existing systems in the world Generally, most differentiated legal families are Civil law system, Common law system and Islamic law (religious) law systems. Each of these systems has their own peculiarity. The Civil law or continental law is major system of law in the world. Usually, it is written codes, all rules and regulations are written in advance (New World Encyclopedia, 2010). Furthermore, a civil law system has most Eurasia countries comprising Central Asia, China, Korea, Uzbekistan and Latin America. However, each country has different codes. Connecting to this, judge makes decision bases on written codes. The most essential examples of codes are the Napoleon code, Swiss Code and German code. The history of civil legal system is started from Roman Empire in 449 BC and it developed of Corpus Juris Civilis  [1]  . This law was created by the decision of Emperor Justinian (527-565). In those times Roman Empire was one of the potent large groups of states or countries statute over by single emperor with several senates. The study of Roman law was conducted in North Italy at Bologna (, 2008). Scholars and judges trained Roman law, these developed rules by them used in national courts to solve legal disputes  [2]  . Coming 11th century the Common law was developed in England and it is widespread other countries which can speak in English such as USA (except Louisiana), Australia, Canada (except Quebec) and others. Common law system is based on cases rather than written principles and decisions made by judges not by parliament or another organization(Britannica Encyclopedia, 2010).According to Britannica Encyclopedia (2010), common laws precedents is know as stare decisis (Latin: let the decision stand). Each people have their interests, feelings and ideas about Common law. For instance, Frederic Mishkin claim that The common law system in which the law is continually reinterpreted by judges ends up protecting property rights far more than others and makes it easier to enforce restrictive covenants. It means that in common law most decision made by judges. The youngest legal system is Islamic law, differently known as Sharia. Islamic law covers ritual and all aspects of life (, 2008). Sharia is in an Arabic word which means the way. However it is a legal system which control Muslim life in every part of earth including business and finance, political and social issues on the earth .According to Muslim view that, these laws are an expression of Gods will. Sharia is mostly based on two major sources like Koran, which is the saintly book of Islam, contained of the words of Allah; and the Sunnah the set of deeds and words of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Secondary source of Sharia is consensus of opinions and interpretations of religious scholars (, 2010). In comparison, in Islamic law judges do not refer to previous cases as in common legal system. 2.2 Criminal procedure in Continental and Common Law Legal Systems Before knowing criminal procedure we should know what is crime and what does it involve? Crime is an act against publics well being (Brown and Sukys, 2006). I would like to refer Mr. Owens view (2001) who believes that the crime is a legal wrong doing of one or more persons in which he or she liable to be prosecuted and punished by state. According to Brown and Sukys (2006), government or state represents public interest. There are several people involve in criminal trial procedure: judge, plaintiff, public prosecutor, defendant. Each of these words has their definition: Judge- is a person who has right to come to decision legal cases. However plaintiff is the person who makes a formal complaint against somebody in court. Prosecutor is the person who brings case to the court (Owens, 2001). Connecting to this, defendant is prosecuted and if he found guilty or not guilty  [3]  . According to Brown and Sukys (2006) The prosecutor is the government attorney who presents the case in court against the person accused, called the defendant. Criminal procedure involves a set of rules through which a government enforces criminal laws  [4]  . Common law and civil legal systems vary considerable in criminal procedure  [5]  . As I mentioned above that civil legal system, is written codes by legal scholars and judges. Judges make decision in criminal procedures according to written rules. The criminal procedure involves government and individuals. Generally, the judge in a civil legal system participate a more actively in determining the facts of the case (, 2010). Many civil legal system countries examine main crimes using a so-called inquisitorial system (, 2010). In addition, civil law depends much more on written argument than oral argument (, 2010). As I wrote earlier common law mainly is based on judge made and previous cases. Criminal procedure in common law also relies on decision m ade by judge. According to Carnes (2010), in common law prosecutor obliged to seek justice more than advocate the defendants interest  [6]  . In addition, Carnes (2010) said that in trials judges are comparatively passive and the act like referee while prosecution and the defense initiate almost all action  [7]  . If defendant is convicted, the judge will determine the sentence and if defendant behaves well or mitigating circumstances that may lead to lighter sentence  [8]  . 2.3 Civil procedure in Continental and Common Law Legal Systems In general, civil procedure is concerned with private relations between members of community (Martin, 2003). For example, when people have arguments about inheritance, they go to civil court. Usually, in civil cases wronged party compensate loss or injury with money or specific action to suffered party (Brown and Sukys, 2006). However, this kind of punishment does not help to protect society  [9]  . Civil procedure treated differently in common law and continental legal systems. As we know that civil law usually written codes and all rules are written in it, however civil procedure deals with relationship between people. On the other hand, in continental European countries, the usual ground for jurisdiction is the habitual residence of the defendant in the particular state (Shaw, 2003). The civil procedure in common law developed since the sixteenth century and it still developing. Mainly, the issues are discussed within the court. In other world, it has released into wri tten codes of procedure. As Shaw (2003) states that in the common law countries like USA and Great Britain, the civil cases remain service of writ upon the defendant within country and it is usual basis for jurisdiction. According to Uff (2004), civil courts have an inherent jurisdiction to regulate their own procedure in ways which is not covered by statutory rules and it was acknowledged in common law legal system. As stated by Uff (2004), now trial in the most common law systems, one judge decides all issues of law and fact and delivers conclusion of the trial. 2.4 Difference of Criminal and Civil procedure in two legal systems It is generally agreed today that the Criminal and Civil procedure are different case of law. If we talk about Civil procedural law is generally to be found in rules of court made. According to Shaw (2003), civil procedure has been claimed far wider grounds by the state than has been in criminal cases. Also, Shaw (2003) claims This is partly due to the fact that public opinion is far more easily roused where a person is tried abroad for criminal offences than if a person is involved in a civil case. The primary difference between Criminal and Civil procedure is the steps which involve in process. The criminal case starts between the government and defendant, while civil procedure begins between two equal parties. The other difference is way of penalizing the accused person in the procedures. The criminal case may end up with punishment such as time in prison, probation or fine (amount of money). But civil procedure defends human rights and applies compensation for the case  [10]  . 3. Conclusion All of this point to the conclusion that law has a very wide meaning. It is used in every aspect of our lives. In the modern society, each individual should know about his rights. At the same time, law also requires the specific rules for each kind of behavior and expands to the procedures and the different types of law. In addition, as I mentioned above there are three main legal systems like Common legal system, civil legal system and Islamic (religious) legal systems as the evidence of wide meaning of law.

Friday, May 8, 2020

Sociology A Sociological Perspective - 896 Words

According to the University of North Carolina, â€Å"Sociology is the study of human social relationships and institutions† ( Sociology is science practiced by everyone in the world, whether they realize it or not. It is not only an incredibly important social science but also a beautiful art to study how society works. Now, an educated sociologist will realize that there are different perspective to view the world through from a sociological perspective. There are three specific views: Structural Functionalist, Conflict Theory, and Symbolic Interactionism. Each has valid points of view, and not completely exclusive to the other, but in this case one is more correct and valid than the others. Conflict theory is the most credible theory in psychology because it factors in the problems of power and broken systems. Sociology is a social science that studies social interactions and changes that happ en in them. With this knowledge it is important that sociology can be viewed in three separate ways that are completely different. The first theory is Structural Functionalism, which views society as a whole in which a person might view a person as a fully functioning machine (Larkin, Chap 2. Par. 5). This view sees society as many parts called structures (Larkin, Chap 2. Par. 5). A second way to view society is the Conflict perspective, which sees society as branches and families that are in constantShow MoreRelatedSociology : A Sociological Perspective1292 Words   |  6 PagesOrigins of Sociology Ashley Drees Ivy Tech Community College Professor Brosmer April 10,2016 What is Sociology Sociology  is the  study of  social behavior or society, including its origins, development, organization, networks, and institutions. Sociology is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, disorder, and change. Three Main Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Functional Perspective ConflictRead MoreThe Sociological Perspective Of Sociology874 Words   |  4 PagesThe Sociological Perspective Sociology is the scientific study of society and human behavior. Human behavior and each respective society that is studied can be evaluated and governed by the scientific method to produce reliable results. The inquiries into these subjects are derived by the inspirations of sociological perspectives. Each stratifying field of Sociology finds an anchor in the relationships between these pieces in the human context in which they are found. Navigating the water inRead MoreSociology : A Sociological Perspective1053 Words   |  5 PagesSociology is the study of society and social lives and forces that influence people and shape the construction of society their lives. It also gives us an awareness of cultural difference that allows us to see the social world from many perspectives. (Sutton 2013). 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Empire State Building Free Essays

Empire State Building The Empire State Building Outline THESIS STATEMENT: The Empire State Building did not cause much trouble for New York; instead, its construction had many positive effects. Reasons for the Building I. Raskob wanted to make money by renting offices to tenants. We will write a custom essay sample on The Empire State Building or any similar topic only for you Order Now A. He wanted to construct a building that offered him the largest number of offices at the lowest price. B. He didn’t care for innovation and style , but he wanted a building that sticks with his budget. II. In addition, constructing the Empire State Building was a part of an intense rivalry to win the â€Å"World’s Tallest building† title. A. This dream appealed to John Raskob. B. He made sure that his design’s height would exceed the competing buildings. Constructing the Empire State Building I. To design the building, Raskob hired William F. Lamb. Lamb knew that it was a special chance to create something historical, so, although the mission was almost impossible, he decided to accept the project. A. He was able to finish the first design in four weeks B. His design fascinated John Raskob. II. Lamb found many problems with designing such a huge building. A. Designing an elevator was a trouble for William lamb B. Maintaining a fire system capable of reaching the higher floors was a challenge. C. Storing Materials was impossible. III. Just when everything seemed on track, Raskob and his partners received a striking new. A. Chrysler changed his plans in an attempt to beat Raskob B. Raskob decided to add a mooring mast to the building. C. He bet Chrysler plans by his idea Effects of the building I. In 1931, the Empire State Building became the highest building in the world. A. It raised the Americans’ spirits. B. It was opened during the Great Depression. II. Soon after the building’s completion, it became a major tourist attraction site. A. It attracted famous visitors like Albert Einstein. B. It has attracted over 117 million visitors. III. At least 32 people committed suicide by jumping of the building. A. Unidentified man jumps of the building’s roof B. Evelyn McHale jumped from the 86th floor after she left her fiance. Conclusion The Empire State building is no longer the tallest building in the world; however, it remains an important historical figure. The Empire State Building still attracts millions of tourists yearly, and it remains a sign for America’s powers since it is was an innovation in the world of construction. Towers and skyscrapers have become an icon for development; countries now compete to build towers to attract visitors and activate tourism. Some towers are built for telecommunications and broadcasting; however, towers and skyscrapers remain an evidence for the country’s wealth and well-being. Recently, a new trend is prevailing: countries and businesspersons are competing to build the tallest building in the world. Many attempts for achieving this goal succeeded for a while, but nothing is permanent; newer and taller buildings are always built! John R. Raskob financed the Empire State building’s construction to enter the intense competition of constructing the highest building in New York (Construction: Building The Impossible 117). The Empire State Building didn’t cause much trouble for New York; instead its building had many positive effects. Reasons for the Building Raskob wanted to make money by renting offices to tenants, and he wanted a tall skyscraper that would offer him the largest number of offices for the lowest amount of money. He did not want a stylish or innovative building; he just wanted profit, but he wanted a building that sticks to his budget and deadline (117). In addition, constructing the Empire State Building was a part of an intense rivalry to win the â€Å"World’s Tallest building† title. This dream appealed to John Raskob, but this meant that he his building had to exceed 295 meters. He had to compete with Chrysler building and the bank of Manhattan (118). Raskob’s building had to be roughly 305 meters high, and this height had to fit on the 122 by 61-meters area he had purchased on fifth avenue. Constructing the Empire State Building To design the building, Raskob hired William F. Lamb. Lamb knew that it was a special chance to create something historical, so, although the mission was almost impossible, he decided to accept the project. After fifteen trials, Lamb was able to reach a design that met the city’s zoning restrictions and Raskob’s requirements. The basic design was finished in four weeks; the project turned out to be more fascinating in appearance that Raskob has thought (119). Lamb found many problems with designing such a huge building. He faced the challenge of installing a safe elevator that is capable of transporting people such great distances. He split the elevator systems into sections. â€Å"The section serving the lower levels ended at mid-level where the building had to be set back; the upper elevators were placed in the central core (120). † How would water reach the upper stores in case of fire? Lamb designed a unique fire-safety system using giant steel water tanks at different levels. He included 400 hose connection and an alarm connected to the city’s fire station. Also, he ordered that bricks and limestone, fireproof materials, should be used in construction (120). Since construction was happening in one of the busiest cities in the world, the huge amount of materials-for example, tons of marbles from France and Italy, 6500 windows, and 10 million bricks- could not be stored; everything had to be used directly after its delivery. William Lamb completed the detailed project in six month, and the R. H. Shreve arranged the actual construction. (120-121). Just when everything seemed on track, Raskob and his partners received a striking new. Walter Chrysler, the owner of the Chrysler building, revealed his true plans that he was hiding; he was determined to have the world’s tallest building. He added a dome to his building that raised its height to 319 meter, just a few meters higher that Lamb’s design. Raskob could not afford to redesign his building to beat Chrysler, but Raskob found a solution. A hat! † he cried. â€Å"That’s what this building needs-a hat†. At Raskob suggestion, Lamb added a 61-meter top called a mooring mast. It allowed blimps to dock and discharge their passengers. It was not practical and was used only once; however, it gave the Empire State building the title of the world’s tallest building (120-122). The labors completed the steel frame in sixth mo nth, and one year after laying the first piece of steel the construction was completed with a height of 443. 2 meters, easily within the dead line (125). Effects of the Building In 1931, the Empire State Building became the highest building in the world. The building opened in the midst of the Great Depression; it lifted the spirits of many Americans in one of the nation’s hardest times. Celebrating what they named the eighth wonder of the world, people were psychologically lifted by the building’s construction (The Empire State Building: Skyscraper Symbol of America’s Power). Soon after the building’s completion, it became a major tourist attraction site. It attracted many famous people from all over the world including Albert Einstein, the French prime minister, and Queen Elizabeth. The building became an international icon, and it has attracted over 117 million visitors (Empire State Building-Facts). At least 32 people committed suicide by jumping of the building (Empire State building-Facts). For example, An unidentified man got past a guard on the staircase leading from the 102d-floor observatory of the Empire State Building to the top floor yesterday, and leaped to his death (Leaps To His Death Off Empire Tower). Another woman, Evelyn McHale, jumped of the 86 floor of the Empire State building after leaving her fiance. She left a note saying â€Å"he is much better without me†¦. I wouldn’t make a good wife for anybody† and jumped to her death (Life 42). Conclusion The Empire State building is no longer the tallest building in the world; however, it remains an important historical figure. Today Burj Khalifa, found in UAE, is the tallest building in the world (828 meters) (Empire State Building), but as the competition continues who knows where the next tallest building is going to be? The Empire State Building still attracts millions of tourists yearly, and it remains a sign for America’s powers since it is was an innovation in the world of construction. Works Cited Book: Nathan Aaseng. Construction:Building The Impossible. The oliver press. Mineapolis. 2000. http://books. google. com. sa/books? id=nVd8CCmafP0C;printsec=frontcover;hl=ar;source=gbs_ge_summary_r;cad=0#v=onepage;q;f=true Magazine : No author mentioned. Picture of The Week. Life. 12 May 1947. 152 pages http://books. google. com. sa/books? id=ZEgEAAAAMBAJ;source=gbs_navlinks_s Internet: Thomson Gale. The Empire State Building: Skyscraper Symbol of America’s Power. BookRags. Copyright @2005-2006. Science and its times. Visited April 9, 2012. http://www. bookrags. com/research/the-empire-state-building-skyscrape-scit-06123456/#bro_copy No author. Empire State Building. Emporis. Copyright @2000-2012. visited April 9, 2012. http://www. emporis. com/building/empirestatebuilding-newyorkcity-ny-usa No author. LEAPS TO HIS DEATH OFF EMPIRE TOWER. The New York Times. November 4, 1932. Retrieved October 4, 2011. Visited April 10, 2012. http://select. nytimes. com/gst/abstract. html? res=FB0610FF355516738DDDAD0894D9415B828FF1D3 How to cite The Empire State Building, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Preparation For A Debate Essays - Public Speaking, Debating, Debate

Preparation for a Debate How to Prepare for a Debate People generally quarrel because they cannot argue. This quote by Gilbert K. Chesterton rings true when taking into consideration any domestic argument. Debating is a method used to argue a topic between individuals or team members. Generally debating is used to maintain order while the opposed argue. Here are some helpful guidelines for the preparation of a three aside parliamentary style debate. Firstly, when preparing for a three aside parliamentary style debate you must find out what your motion is. Your motion tells what side or viewpoint of the topic you will argue; this is key to determine where you will begin researching. A good debater can see both sides of any topic. You can either be on the side of the opposition or on the side of the proposition. The prop are the promoters of the motion, the opp opposes against it. Secondly, in preparing for this particular kind of debate it is necessary to know the format. Knowing the expected debate format is essential to both teams to ensure a smooth honest debate. The format for a three aside parliamentary style debate follows an alternate pattern starting with the propositions first speaker, and then the first speaker of the opposition follows. This alternation continues for the other team members as well. Each speaker has a maximum talk time of three minutes. The chairperson will conduct the debate, and is seated in the middle with the prop on his right and the opp on his left. During the debate the chairperson is in charge and their word is final and must be followed. The chairperson will introduce the speakers, and also thank them when their talk time has ended. During this parliamentary debate points of information are allowed by the team that is silent while the other speaks. Any points of information that a team wishes to make are not allowed during the first and last minutes of the speakers argument. This restricts all points of information to a one-minute window. The procedure for adding a point is critical. The team member will stand and say Point of Information, at this time he must wait for the speakers response of accept or reject. If accepted the point is limited to one short phrase of roughly 10 words. At any time the speaker can stop the point and continue on with his or her argument. If the point is rejected the opposed must sit immediately and no point is made. A good debater can respond to a point made by the opposite team and then continue where they left off uninterrupted. Our third guideline in preparing for a parliamentary style debate is the function of each team member. The first member of the proposition introduces their motion and defines it. Once it is defined they outline their case line and division given to each speaker. As a result of the topic being divided amongst each team member, research is also conducted according to that division. Generally, the first opp will need to ask their self, What am I defining and what are its advantages? The next to speak will be the first speaker of the opposition. This speaker will either agree or disagree with the propositions definition. However, most times it is best to go with the definition given as to avoid straying away from the given motion. It will be necessary during research for the first speaker of the opp to ask their self, Why am I opposing this motion? and be able to explain the answer. To rebut is to cement your argument around your definition. Hence, the roles of the second and third speakers are unchanging from one team to the next. The second speaker gives the information, which is the rebuttal process, followed by his case. Unlike the first speaker who does not rebuttal the second speakers argument is virtually 50% rebuttal. The third speaker brings it all towards conclusion and lays it on thick holding together his argument with those of his team members, his points are all rebuttal. At this time all the speakers have spoken and the debate is closed by the speaker thanking the members of both teams, the

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Modern Times and The Importance of Food †Film Essay

Modern Times and The Importance of Food – Film Essay Free Online Research Papers Modern Times and The Importance of Food Film Essay â€Å"Modern Times† is a black and white film from the nineteen thirties that considers the working man and working conditions during the most crushing times of the Great Depression. Charlie Chaplin is the producer, director, musician and main character of this comic film. Throughout the film he goes through many trying times with his working situations in this silent comedy. Food is given a very important role in this depression era film. Food is looked at in many different ways throughout â€Å"Modern Times†. Because food was very hard to obtain for most you can understand why it is focused on many times during the film. Through the silly and comical situations Charlie gets himself into, he finds himself in jail. To our confusion it doesn’t seem to phase him at all, he almost seems happy to be there. When he is let go he doesn’t want to leave because being in jail means he will at least be fed everyday. When he is let go he tries a few thing to get himself thrown back in jail. He tries to take the blame for a girl who stole some bread and when that doesn’t work he goes to a cafeteria, eats as much as he can, then calls the police before not paying for his dinner. The police come and Charlie is happy to be put back in jail. It must have been a tough time if someone would rather be in jail where they are sure to be fed, then begging on the streets. Another way food is shown in much importance in this film is in day dreaming. Charlie and his girlfriend are sitting on the side of the street when they witness a woman waving goodbye to her husband as he leaves for work. They decide to get a house of their own. They sit on the sidewalk and think about what it would be like. In this daydream there is food everywhere. There is a fruit tree just out the window, another just out the door and a cow walks up for milking as the girl is preparing dinner. This is another way food is shown as such a prized possession in this film. It is almost like the only good thing about living in a house together would be food where that isn’t guaranteed at all. Charlie finds a job working as the night watchmen at a department store. All he seems to notice and care about are the cakes and pastries on the counter. After the store is empty he runs to get the girl so they can both enjoy the food. Not only that but a few men brake in and when he calls them burglars they say they are just hungry so he sees nothing wrong with them being there, even after the shoot the top off a wine bottle. Food is such a valued object that it seems to blind his decision and ends up getting him in trouble. At another job of his he helps a man repairing the machines. While attempting to help he ends up helping the man fall into the machine. The man is stuck in the machine when the lunch bell rings and Charlie stops trying to help him out so he can eat his lunch. After a minute the man gets over the fact that he is no longer helping him and has Charlie feed him his lunch while stuck. Food is of such importance that even being stuck in a machine doesn’t stop either of them for wanting to eat there lunch. It is almost like they think if they don’t eat it now it may not be there later and they may have nothing else to eat for the rest of the day. During the worst times of the depression era food was not something to be wasted and was considered on of the most important things. Today we look at food as very important but we don’t really know what it is like to not have food. Most of us haven’t had to wonder where our next meal was going to come from or how we were going to get it. This film, â€Å"Modern Times† reflects how important food was during that era. You can tell it is of great importance even through the comedy of Charlie Chaplin. Research Papers on "Modern Times" and The Importance of Food - Film EssayThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationWhere Wild and West MeetCapital PunishmentComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoThe Hockey Game19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraLifes What IfsHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeUnreasonable Searches and Seizures

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Oasis Theory and the Origins of Agriculture

Oasis Theory and the Origins of Agriculture The Oasis Theory (known variously as the Propinquity Theory or Desiccation Theory) is a core concept in archaeology, referring to one of the main hypotheses about the origins of agriculture: that people started to domesticate plants and animals because they were forced to, because of climate change. The fact that people changed from hunting and gathering to farming as a subsistence method has never seemed like a logical choice. To archaeologists and anthropologists, hunting and gathering in a universe of limited population and plentiful resources is less demanding work than plowing, and certainly more flexible. Agriculture requires cooperation, and living in settlements reaps social impacts, like diseases, ranking, social inequality, and division of labor. Most European and American social scientists in the first half of the 20th century simply didnt believe that human beings were naturally inventive or inclined to change their ways of life unless compelled to do so. Nevertheless, at the end of the last Ice Age, people did reinvent their method of living. What Do Oases Have to Do With the Origins of Agriculture? The Oasis Theory was defined by Australian-born archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe [1892-1957], in his 1928 book, The Most Ancient Near East. Childe was writing decades before the invention of radiocarbon dating and a half-century before the serious collection of the vast amount of climatic information that we have today had begun. He argued that at the end of the Pleistocene, North Africa and the Near East experienced a period of desiccation, a period of an increased occurrence of drought, with higher temperatures and decreased precipitation. That aridity, he argued, drove both people and animals to congregate at oases and river valleys; that propinquity created both population growth and a closer familiarity with plants and animals. Communities developed and were pushed out of the fertile zones, living on the edges of the oases where they were forced to learn how to raise crops and animals in places that were not ideal. Childe was not the first scholar to suggest that cultural change can be driven by environmental changethat was American geologist Raphael Pumpelly [1837-1923] who suggested in 1905 that central Asian cities collapsed because of desiccation. But during the first half of the 20th century, the available evidence suggested that farming appeared first on the dry plains of Mesopotamia with the Sumerians, and the most popular theory for that adoption was environmental change. Modifying the Oasis Theory Generations of scholars beginning in the 1950s with Robert Braidwood, in the 1960s with Lewis Binford, and in the 1980s with Ofer Bar-Yosef, built, dismantled, rebuilt, and refined the environmental hypothesis. And along the way, dating technologies and the ability to identify evidence and timing of past climate change blossomed. Since then, oxygen-isotope variations have allowed scholars to develop detailed reconstructions of the environmental past, and a vastly improved picture of past climate change has been developed. Maher, Banning, and Chazen recently compiled comparative data on radiocarbon dates on cultural developments in the Near East and radiocarbon dates on climatic events during that period. They noted there is substantial and growing evidence that the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture was a very long and variable process, lasting thousands of years in some places and with some crops. Further, the physical effects of climate change also were and are variable across the region: some regions were severely impacted, others less so. Maher and colleagues concluded that climate change alone cannot have been the sole trigger for specific shifts in technological and cultural change. They add that that doesnt disqualify climatic instability as providing the context for the long transition from mobile hunter-gatherer to sedentary agricultural societies in the Near East, but rather that the process was simply far more complex than the Oasis theory can sustain. Childes Theories To be fair, though, throughout his career, Childe didnt simply attribute cultural change to environmental change: he said that you had to include significant elements of social change as drivers as well. Archaeologist Bruce Trigger put it this way, restating Ruth Tringhams comprehensive review of a handful of Childe biographies: Childe viewed every society as containing within itself both progressive and conservative tendencies which are linked by dynamic unity as well as by persistent antagonism. The latter provides the energy that in the long run brings about irreversible social change. Hence every society contains within itself the seeds for the destruction of its present state and the creation of a new social order. Sources Braidwood RJ. 1957. Jericho and its Setting in Near Eastern History. Antiquity 31(122):73-81.Braidwood RJ, Çambel H, Lawrence B, Redman CL, and Stewart RB. 1974. Beginnings of Village-Farming Communities in Southeastern Turkey1972. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 71(2):568-572.Childe VG. 1969. New Light on the Most Ancient East. London: Norton Company.Childe VG. 1928. The Most Ancient Near East. London: Norton Company.Maher LA, Banning EB, and Chazan M. 2011. Oasis or Mirage? Assessing the Role of Abrupt Climate Change in the Prehistory of the Southern Levant. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 21(01):1-30.Trigger BG. 1984. Childe and Soviet Archaeology. Australian Archaeology 18:1-16.Tringham R. 1983. V. Gordon Childe 25 Years After: His Relevance for the Archaeology of the Eighties. Journal of Field Archaeology 10(1):85-100.Verhoeven M. 2011. The Birth of a Concept and the Origins of the Neolithic: A History of Prehistoric Farmers in the Near East. Palà ©orient oasis37(1):75-87. Weisdorf JL. 2005. From Foraging To Farming: Explaining The Neolithic Revolution. Journal of Economic Surveys 19(4):561-586.Wright HE. 1970. Environmental Changes and the Origin of Agriculture in the near East. BioScience 20(4):210-217.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Ethical Issues related to the police use of force Research Paper

Ethical Issues related to the police use of force - Research Paper Example However, cases of using too much and illegalized force should decrease since there are new tactics of restricting suspects from their immoral behaviors (Safrath, 2011). In the past days of policing, the street police used force as a tactic of maintaining law and order and making their will obligatory. In the early 1960s, research shows that the police used too much force in the rebellions and disturbances caused by some people. However, the use of force by the police depends on the roles and responsibilities of the police. This means that some of the police in some departments do not exercise force in maintaining their duties since it is not ethically legal. On the other hand, some departments exercise the use of police force and it is sometimes mandatory for these departments to apply force. For instance, in case of riots and rebellion, the police needs to use force in order to maintain law and keep peace (, 2008). In the United States, the police often exercise force in approximately 2 million cases per year. Each year, the police use force in over 3,600 occasions resulting to a mean of 600 people being killed (Huebsch, 2011). Police use of force is ethically justifiable for policing actions since it helps in maintaining and exercising their discretion. However, with these well-known ethical rules, the police cannot yet determine the infringement since most of them cannot be predictable by the rules. The domestic police and the military police often had common characteristics and same ethical standards. For instance, sometimes they necessitate on using excessive amount of force where required and sometimes they do not require to use force at all (Huebsch, 2011). This paper will analyze the ethical issues associated with police use of force. It will seek to establish whether it is ethically justifiable for police to use force. It is ethically justifiable for the police to exercise force in maintaining law and order. Police officers are